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Glazing

Among oil painters, there seems to be a com­mon mis­con­cep­tion that glaz­ing is some kind of mys­ti­cal tech­nique that only a few can mas­ter. The basic process is, how­ever, very sim­ple. Glaz­ing is putting one layer of paint over another so that you can see the under­layer through the upper layer of paint. Glaz­ing is a form of indi­rect paint­ing, which just means that you are paint­ing with more than one layer, allow­ing pre­vi­ous lay­ers to dry before you add more paint on top.

Glaz­ing can be used for a num­ber of pur­poses. As I noted my post com­par­ing the glaz­ing meth­ods of Ital­ian and Nether­lan­dish Renais­sance painters, glaz­ing can be used to cre­ate opti­cal color mix­tures (a blue glazed over a yel­low makes a green) or to cre­ate mod­el­ing effects (thicker lay­ers of trans­par­ent paint are darker, so you can adjust value by adjust­ing the thick­ness of the paint). Some artists glaze over a whole paint­ing to unify the over­all tone. Oth­ers will glaze spe­cific parts of the paint­ing. One method is to do an ini­tial monot­one under­paint­ing (in shades of grey, for exam­ple) then apply color over it. This sim­pli­fies the process of paint­ing by first tack­ling pure value, then work­ing out hue and chroma. Some mod­ern por­trait painters will do an ini­tial paint­ing of flesh in shades of green (they incor­rectly call this a “ver­dac­cio”). They then glaze with reds and oranges (com­ple­men­taries and near-complementaries to green), pro­vid­ing the flesh tones with a sense of vital­ity that is dif­fi­cult to achieve with direct paint­ing. Glaz­ing can also be use­ful for main­tain­ing chroma in light col­ors. Mix­ing with a lot of white will seri­ously reduce the chroma of most col­ors, result­ing in a look often described as “chalky.” If you glaze the same color over white, how­ever, you can achieve an opti­cal effect that is high in value, with more chroma that you could get by mix­ing that color with white.

Because a glaze dark­ens what it cov­ers (unless its a scumble—see below), it is best to do the under­paint­ing lighter than the intended final effect. If you are going to glaze, it’s impor­tant for the under­paint­ing to have as smooth a sur­face as pos­si­ble. That’s because irreg­u­lar­i­ties will trap excess amounts of paint in the glaze layer, cre­at­ing weird lit­tle spots of darker paint. So, before the paint dries, it’s a good idea to go over it very lightly with a soft dry brush, look­ing for lumps and gen­tly brush­ing them down. After the under­paint­ing has dried thor­oughly, you may want to wet sand to cre­ate as smooth a sur­face as possible.

In select­ing paint col­ors to glaze with, it is use­ful to dis­tin­guish among opaque col­ors (like cad­mium yel­low), semi-transparent col­ors (like ultra­ma­rine blue), and trans­par­ent col­ors (like alizarin crim­son). While any of these col­ors can be used for glaz­ing, trans­par­ent and semi-transparent col­ors are darker when they are put on more thickly. Opaque col­ors can be used for glaz­ing, but only when they are applied in a thin layer. A thick layer of an opaque color is not a glaze, because you can’t see the under­paint­ing through it.

Many oil painters think that the best way to glaze is to dilute the paint with medium to a watery or syrupy con­sis­tency (this is what a lot of art instruc­tion man­u­als tell you to do). The paint becomes less opaque because the pig­ment par­ti­cles are sep­a­rated by a larger than nor­mal amount of trans­par­ent vehi­cle. This type of glaze is called a dilu­tion glaze. In my (deeply hum­ble) opin­ion, it’s the wrong way to glaze. It’s bad tech­nique for (at least) three rea­sons: (1) all of that extra resin and oil will darken and yel­low over time, ruin­ing the effect; (2) dilu­tion glazes tend to cre­ate a sort of “tinted pho­to­graph” effect that doesn’t have the solid­ity a painter is usu­ally try­ing to depict; and (3) the doc­u­men­ta­tion I’ve found on his­tor­i­cal glaz­ing tech­niques sug­gests that only small amounts of resin are detected in glaz­ing lay­ers in Renais­sance Nether­lan­dish paint­ings, which I con­sider to be the gold stan­dard in glaz­ing for both beauty and longevity.

A bet­ter method is called a reduc­tion glaze. This approach involves adjust­ing the trans­parency of the paint by adjust­ing the thick­ness of the paint layer. While you can do a reduc­tion glaze with noth­ing but pure oil paint, it helps to first lubri­cate the sur­face by apply­ing a very thin layer of a slip­pery medium. My pre­ferred glaz­ing medium is a 50/50 mix­ture of black oil (lin­seed cooked with lead) and Venice tur­pen­tine (if you don’t like to use sub­stances con­tain­ing lead, lin­seed oil will work almost as well). Stu­dio Prod­ucts also sells an excel­lent glaz­ing medium. You can also use plain lin­seed or wal­nut oil as a glaz­ing medium. Put a drop of medium on the sur­face, rub­bing it in with your fin­gers to spread it as far as pos­si­ble. This way, you can cover a large area with just a few drops of medium. In addi­tion to putting some on the sur­face, you can also put just a tiny bit of medium in your paint, but I don’t usu­ally find that necessary.

Mix up the color you want to glaze with. Apply it thickly and evenly to the desired area with a brush. It will look like a hor­ri­ble mess at this stage, but have faith. You will now reduce the thick­ness of the glaze to the desired opac­ity and value. Do this by dab­bing with a soft brush, smear­ing with your fin­gers, rub­bing with a cloth or sponge, or what­ever works to adjust the glaze to achieve the desired effect. With a lit­tle prac­tice, a reduc­tion glaze is really pretty easy. You can get nice gra­da­tions in color and value by cre­at­ing a gra­da­tion from thin to thick. Or you can cre­ate gra­da­tions from one color to another. Once you have the glaze spread to the right thick­ness, you can, if you like, paint into it with other col­ors. For exam­ple, you can apply light high­lights into a wet glaze and then blend it in. If desired, you can let your glaze dry and then add one or more addi­tional lay­ers of glaz­ing. For exam­ple, you can get really intense, chro­matic darks by glaz­ing with mul­ti­ple lay­ers of trans­par­ent paint.

When mix­ing col­ors for a glaze, it is some­times help­ful to add a small amount of white to your mix­tures. This pro­vides a greater sense of solidity.

If you glaze with very light col­ors con­tain­ing a lot of white, it is usu­ally called a scum­ble. Tita­nium white, being very opaque, can be a bad choice for scum­bling. Flake white and zinc white are much eas­ier to cre­ate trans­parency effects with. A very white, hazy glaze is called a velatura (“veil”). A velatura can be a great way to depict trans­par­ent smoke, haze, or fog.

Update

Instead of mak­ing sure the under­paint­ing sur­face is smooth before glaz­ing over it, you can delib­er­ately give it lots of tex­ture. Then the glaze will sink into the nooks and cran­nies, cre­at­ing a sense of dimen­sional relief. Rem­brandt often used this technique.

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30 Responses

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  1. maryanne says

    I live in a fairly rural area where I can only depend on help from books and/or the Inter­net when it comes to my new hobby, oil paint­ing. I found the infor­ma­tion on glaz­ing help­ful in more ways than I can explain. Thank you.

  2. David says

    Maryanne,

    You’re very welcome.

  3. Incompetent says

    Are there any other medi­ums you rec­om­mend for reduc­tion glazes? I’ve been using a mix­ture of stand oil / venice turp and it’s so incred­i­bly thick it barely spreads with rub­bing. I’ve read that glaz­ing medi­ums should have no sol­vent as not to dis­solve pre­vi­ous lay­ers — what do you think?

  4. David says

    Incom­pe­tent,”

    Stand oil really needs some kind of sol­vent for most prac­ti­cal uses. I like black oil and Venice tur­pen­tine as a glaz­ing medium; you could use lin­seed instead of the black oil and it would work almost as well.

    The best com­mer­cial prod­uct that I know of for this pur­pose is the glaz­ing medium sold by Stu­dio Prod­ucts. Not every­thing they make is per­fect, but the glaz­ing medium is really excel­lent and fairly inex­pen­sive. It has no sol­vent, so there are no wor­ries that it will dis­solve pre­vi­ous lay­ers. Be sure to stir it before using.

  5. Incompetent says

    Thanks David. The rea­son I ask is East­lake in his book talks con­stantly on the use of “thick oleo-resinous vehicle”(s) for impart­ing depth and rich­ness to glazes. I know he’s not held in high esteem in all cir­cles but I find parts of it spot on — such as crisp under­paint­ings to coun­ter­act the soft­en­ing effect of sub­se­quent glazes/scumbles.

  6. Louis R. Velasquez says

    Hello David..and to ‘Incom­pe­tent” ( name? ), I am sure you are not incom­pe­tent, but seek­ing good advice. Ive read the lengthy com­ment by David. As always it gives lots of ‘the­ory’ and some shar­ing of prac­ti­cal expe­ri­ence. Glad to see DAvid added impor­tant info on NOT hav­ing to smooth out the surface..as mater Rem­brandt ignored that ‘the­o­ret­i­cal aca­d­e­mic ‘approach. FYIU..Rembrandt, beinmg the mas­ter that jhe was, also did not aql­ways wait for the wet paint film to dry..and GLAZED on top of wet paint.. HOW? He used a thixotropic thick gel-like medium ( described in my book). GLAZES are of course a won­der­ful part of oil paint­ing for all the rea­sons David cites. David’s sug­ges­tion to ‘oil out’ the dry sur­face with pure lin­seed oil ( unclear if you say to use it alone, or mixed with the VT?) is not good advice either way. If used alone, this oil is a poor choice because it will drip and any fine details inpainted will blur, and if mixed with VT this oil choice is still a poor choice because it takes many days to dry..and it dries ‘soft’(compared to heated oils). Davids choice of using black oil ( con­tain­ing haz­ardous lead) solves the slow dry­ing prob­lem, and venice tur­pen­tine ( a sticky bal­sam) solves the drip prob­lem. But, Venice tur­pen­tine , is a bal­sam, and is ‘brit­tle’ as it ages..it is also solu­able in solvents…even when fully dry and or old ( restora­tion prob­lems down the line). “Incompetent’s”( sorry to refer to you like that) expe­ri­ence with a mix of stand oil and venice turp is com­pletely unmanagable and a poor choice. I’ve not tried he ‘stu­dio prod­ucts’ item, and its lack of con­tents listed, con­cerns me. ‘Incom­pe­tent” also is cor­rect in cit­ing a glaze medium should not con­tain a sol­vent because if you rub it in like you should do, it lifts/disrupts the under­lay­ing paint film…. that leaves out the cur­rent ’ paint­ing medi­ums’ sold on the market.

    SO..whats the answer? The SIMPLE ANSWER is in my book. Ive posted before, and I have gifted David a copy of my book, ” Oil Paint­ing with ‘Cal­cite Sun Oil”: Safety and Per­ma­nence with­out Haz­ardous Sol­vents, Resins, Var­nishes, ans Dri­ers”. My research stud­ies, exper­i­ments, and activ­ity as an oil painter for over 50 years allows me to describe a safer , and com­pletely per­ma­nent use of mate­ri­als based on ancient knowl­edge, and on the results of the cur­rent sci­en­tific stud­ies of Velazquez, Rem­brandt, and Van Eyck, by lead­ers in con­ser­va­tion and reasearch. i.e. Ernst Van de Weter­ing, head of the Rem­brandt Reaseach Project, and Ms. Car­men Garrido-Perez, Chief con­ser­va­tor of the Prado Museum in Madrid, Spain.

    The SIMPLE answer lies in either of two eas­ily made, com­pletely safe ( you could eat them) Egg Glair Emul­sions, named, ‘Vis­cous Emul­sion” and the ‘Non-Viscous Emul­sion”. See my web­site or write to me. sin­cerely, Louis
    PS: I do appre­ci­ate David’s site, and rec­og­nize his efforts to inform and assist, and I like that he is alway open to alter­nate views and updated information.

  7. Louis R. Velasquez says

    Hi ‘Incom­pe­tent’ (sorry) and David ( I apol­o­gize for all the typos in my pre­ceed­ing letter..It was care­less haste on my part). HERE is an addi­tional com­ment re ‘Incompentent’s’ post­ing, cut and pasted here:

    MY COMMENT:
    If the CORRECT lin­seed oil is used .i.e. UNREFINED Cold Pressed Sun Thick­ened Lin­seed Oil…. not slow dry­ing Alkali Refined Stand oil nor even slower dry­ing Alkali Refined unpoly­mer­ized lin­seed oil…. you can have the gel-like vis­cos­ity with­out the RESIN..and have all the resin ben­e­fits such as ‘stickiness/adherance’, eas­ier blend­ing, micro-fine details , in addi­tion to the fastest dry­ing required… by sim­ple mix­tures of the CORRECT oil with Cal­cium Car­bon­ate, used in con­junc­tion with either of the two Egg Glair /Oil Emul­sions.
    This choice and use of ancient mate­ri­als gives great color depth, deep lus­ter, and hard sur­face that is needed for endurance, archival per­ma­nence and valu­able col­oris­tic and tex­tural effects.
    I would be happy to respond to any inquiries. =louis

  8. james says

    My head throbs from read­ing all the above, but my two cents worth: the SP Glaz­ing medium is really very good. The ingre­di­ents, while not listed on the con­tainer, are avail­able, to be found on the site, i think the forum…but they include Canada Bal­sam. Lay­er­ing it on and glaz­ing into it is really very nice, though a bit tricky till you get the hang of it.

    Louis, you should go and check out Wet Can­vas, raise some cack­les there in the Oil Forum…always a good time, and thanks for your info, and David, Love the Boot Draw­ing and the Jump Boot paint­ing is Fabulous.

    james

  9. Louis R. Velasquez says

    Hi James, Thank you for your rec­om­men­da­tion :) I do read many sites. Please see my web­site and write to me. You and I can dia­logue about your glaz­ing issues and…more.
    sin­cerely, louis
    PS: con­grats again on your web­site, David.

  10. james says

    Thank you for the invite, have been to your site, i’ve no real issues con­cern­ing glaz­ing, only use it spar­ingly, am more of a direct painter, ADHD issues keep me from indi­rect painting….ants in me pants and so on…

    David, Have recently got my hands on some Garrett’s copal, very nice medium, copal with stand oil. In glaz­ing and in reg. paint­ing acts very much like Maroger’s, use it in the same man­ner to, paint­ing into the couch, won­der­ing if you had heard of it, or the SP ver­sion and your thoughts. Know you are away for a bit, so no need to get to this immediately….

    Enjoy life and the smiles of your lit­tle addition,

    james

  11. Incompetent says

    Curi­ous that there doesn’t seem much infor­ma­tion avail­able about the oil/calcium car­bon­ate com­bi­na­tion. Is it sim­i­lar to Annigoni’s medium?

    In sev­eral texts Tit­ian is quoted as say­ing he used “30 or 40” glazes. Yet in another book I’ve read he allegedly used only two or three, which is sup­posed to account for the good con­di­tion of his works. Maddening…

  12. Louis R. Velasquez says

    David and James, ( James, please excuse my com­ment on Gar­rets Copal).
    Fred­eric Taubes is the for­mu­la­tor of mod­ern 20th cen­tury ‘Copal Paint­ing Medi­ums”. His line was sold in the 50’s-70’s by Per­ma­nent Pig­ments Co (now defunct). Taubes (b.1900)died in 1981. Taubes’ line offered 1. Copal con­cen­trate= a very vis­cous mix­ture of copal resin and stand oil like thick honey 2. Copal Paint­ing Medium –light ( mean­ing thinned) 3. Copal Paint­ing Medium — heavy(thickened) 4. Copal varnish.

    I learned to oil paint with these mate­ri­als, begin­ning in about 1957. They really made the oil paint , sold in tubes with the slow dry­ing unpoly­mer­ized, alkali refined lin­seed oil… behave! After Taubes died, his prod­ucts went off the mar­ket, and sev­eral copy prod­ucts sur­faced. I have spo­ken with Mr. Gar­rett, many years ago. His mother had known Mr. Taubes, and he was/is try­ing to revive the Taubes line. I tried his prod­uct and saw no rea­son to con­tinue to use it.

    Ive spo­ken with Mr. Taubes’ grand­son, Tim. He has told me his grand­fa­thers paint­ings have low­ered in tone. Since Ebay became a real­ity, I now own 6 Taubes orig­i­nal paint­ings. The ear­li­est is from the late 30’s ( decided by style , as Taubes, rarely dated his paint­ings), and the newest are from the 70’s. The older ones have cracks in sev­eral areas, dry­ness, sunken col­ors, brit­tle­ness, etc… not at all like the won­der­fully pre­served 500 year old paint­ings of the Van Eycks!

    Taubes for­mu­la­tions used mix­tures of Petro­leum Dis­til­late as the sol­vent for the Copal resin, and he used today’s slow dry­ing Alkali Refined Lin­seed oil, thick­ened by high heat, that we know as Stand Oil… Taubes also used mix­tures of unpoly­mer­ized ( thin) alkali refined lin­seed oil, as mix­tures with the stand oil… thats how he got the “THINMEDIUM and the “HEAVYMEDIUM, in addi­tion to adding more solvent…

    Many of you have seen the fine web­site by Mr. James C. Groves. He has much to say about hard resins, and pro­duces a long line of amber oil medi­ums, var­nishes, etc. But, I find them all to be unnecessary.

    My expe­ri­ence, and the goals I have , are not to raise cack­les, but to focus on edu­ca­tion and shar­ing what I have learned. I know today, that with the infor­ma­tion in my book, you and I can repli­cate the Effects of Van Eyck and the early Flem­ings, and those of Rem­brandt… inci­den­tally.. Mr. Taubes in his book ‘The Mas­tery of Oil Paint­ing” writes a short com­ment that Rembrandt’s paint was very long and vis­cous, but it held every brush­stroke and knife mark.. ( which long flow­ing paint does not do, as it fuses and drips, spreads). … Taubes could not explain how Rem­brandt did this. I know the way Rem­brandt did it. It has a spe­cial chap­ter in my book.

    sin­cerely= louis PS: I am indebted to James Groves, a friend of mine, as it was he who con­vinced me to hand grind my paints…this venture…led me to the exper­i­ments and sub­se­quent for­mu­la­tion of ‘Cal­cite Sun Oil’, which is now patented.

  13. Louis R. Velasquez says

    David, greet­ings again. Ref­er­ence MR. Incomp———‘s post­ing, cut and pasted here with *****:

    Thanks for the inquiry. My web­site gives a brief intro. My for­mu­la­tion is based on the 1990’s stud­ies of Rembrandt’s paint­ings in the Lon­don National Gallery, also the Velazquez paint­ings in the Prado, Madrid Spain. These and other sources show use of Cal­cium Car­bon­ate with oil paint..in all the colors..not just as an exten­der for White. My patent num­ber is 7141109, view­able at the US Patent and Trade­mark Office website.

    You have not read much about it…because it is NEW ( thats why I was awarded a patent )..NEW to todays con­tem­pory oil paints and painters, as every book today on oil paint­ing describes nec­es­sary use of sol­vents, dri­ers, resins, var­nishes… that ARE NEEDED to make the tube paint behave. AS TO ANNIGONI, I under­stand he used Emul­sions, but thats as much as I know about his meth­ods and mate­ri­als. Todays man­u­als give many EMULSION recipes.. involv­ing some­times com­plex mix­tures of water, yolk, dammar resin, oils, sol­vents… with painful mix­ture pro­ce­dures… when in real­ity it is the sim­plest thing to make.

    YES, MADDENING..THEORISTS AT WORK HERE. Tit­ian painted sim­ply. The Getty museum in LA, CAl­i­for­nia pub­lished an arti­cle describ­ing the method and mate­ri­als he used to paint a famous paint­ing they have. Tit­ian sized the raw linen canvas..then scrubbed.. not lay­ered… gesso into the weave holes, then sized it again. it gave him a per­fectly white sur­face, that remained flex­i­ble.. pic­tures of the paint­ing are on my web­site… he then did a thin lay­ered umber/white monot­one that dried fast.. then he applied alla prima colors..as only he could do. trans­parency, translu­cency, impasto.. beau­ti­ful. NOT 30 galzes!
    = sin­cerely= louis

  14. james says

    I do not take your com­ments per­son­ally, so do not worry. I for­warded your com­ments and a link to this to Ron so he may see. In regards the his­tory and the results of using the “accursed” medium (my quotes) I have read state­ments that basi­cally are the exact oppo­site of what you have stated and some that vary in minute ways. As with much I read, until I research it myself, the salt shaker stands ready for my men­tal diges­tion. I really enjoy paint­ing with no medium except the addi­tion of the actual vehi­cle in the tube. I have ground my own, and have found it tire­some, while I do care about qual­ity, the demands of the day to day life being dif­fer­ent for me today than they might pos­si­ble been in the thir­teenth cen­tury lead me to search out qual­ity prod­uct avail­able com­mer­cially. I would love to read your method, or rather try your medium, it sounds rather inter­est­ing, the Whole foods shop­ping, organic eat­ing tree hug­ger side of me smiles at see­ing some­thing that is done with out harm­ing nature too much and puts things back in the artist’s con­trol. If that time comes, cool. Till then, I seek great crafts­man and knowl­edge­able teach­ers, such as David here, the peo­ple at M.Graham (great envi­ron­men­tal­ists) and Williams­burg Paints. My young impres­sion­able mind seeks and I shall find.

    Thank you so much for the info, and I do hope this turns back to a glaz­ing discussion.

    TTFN (tatafornow)

    james

  15. Louis R. Velasquez says

    Thanks TTFN, I would like to see How Ron ( Gar­rett) is doing these days. I hope he writes me, he and I will have a nice dis­cus­sion about things we dis­cussed many years ago..
    thanks again=louis
    PS: thanks David, for sharing.

  16. David says

    I don’t have a lot to add here, but it’s grat­i­fy­ing to see a com­ment thread on my blog get so interesting.

    Louis, I’ve used both alkali-refined and cold-pressed lin­seed oil, and I can’t say that I’ve noticed a vast dif­fer­ence in their work­ing prop­er­ties. I’ll have to do some tests using some of the recipes in your book, but in terms of dry­ing time, yel­low­ing, ease of grind­ing, rhe­ol­ogy, and so on, I have not noticed the kinds of strik­ing dif­fer­ences you allude to. Nor have I noticed that Old Hol­land oil paints (which are ground in cold pressed lin­seed) are vastly dif­fer­ent from other high qual­ity brands of paint that are ground in refined lin­seed oil.

    Care to com­ment on how you draw your con­clu­sions about lin­seed oil pro­cess­ing methods?

  17. Incompetent says

    Please post the results of your tests with Louis’ recipes, David. This is all very intrigu­ing but it would be ben­e­fi­cial to see how they per­form in practice.

  18. Louis R. Velasquez says

    HI DAVID, and Thank you for the oppor­tu­nity to respond. First, your read­ers should know that I gifted you a copy of my book, some pre­pared ’ cal­cite sun oil’, and some sam­ples of UNREFINED cold pressed lin­seed oil that has been sun thick­ened. Also, I sent some Chalk from Cham­pagne, France/ Cal­cium Car­bon­ate pow­der. I felt you were a man of integrity, and since I already know the results, and have tes­ti­mo­ni­als from some very pro­fes­sional painters that have pur­chased my book ‚I know what the results wil be.. pro­vid­ing you fol­low instruc­tions cor­rectly. I am trusting.

    But, its so sim­ple , that I like to say to artists, “Its as easy as falling off a lad­der”. The only real prob­lem is UNLEARNINg those cur­rent habits gained from use of Solvent/resin/drier based “paint­ing medi­ums”. THings so sim­ple as..NOT HAVING a grind­ing table to change the ‘con­sis­tency” of the paint. Look at Velaqzquez self por­trait in Las Meni­nas” and see his palette has NO LITTLE CUPS to hold a liq­uid for….dipping his brush into and ‘THINNING” his paint. And there are other things/habits to unlearn. My book describes a SAFE and PERMANENT method where you com­pletely elim­i­nate ALL HAZARDOUS materials..i.e. SOLVENTS, DRIERS, VARNISHES, RESINS.

    David, tHere is NO noti­ci­ble dif­fer­ence when you take the two dif­fer­ent oils right out of the bot­tle. You are refer­ring to use of the two oils in their UNPOLYMERIZED state, is my assump­tion, and I dont mean to assume.

    You have not yet made the tests? Then you can­not com­ment on the results. There are only three very impor­tant but sim­ple for­mu­las…. The first is the use of the UNREFINED cold Pressed Sun Thick­ened Lin­seed oil.. mixed in the cor­rect ratio with Cal­cium Car­bon­ate ( of which Chalk of Cham­pagne igives the best result / there are sev­eral types) to make the thixotropic gel-like mix­ture that is called, “Cal­cite Sun Oil” ( the name has been trade­mark pro­tected). The other two very sim­ple for­mu­las are the ‘Vis­cous Emul­sion” and the Non-Viscous Emul­si­uon” each has a unique prop­erty and sev­eral impor­tant uses.

    *****but in terms of dry­ing time

    Poly­mer­ized Sun thick­ened UNREFINED cold pressed lin­seed oil dries within 30 hours..compared to poly­mer­ized Alkali REFINED, mod­ern STAND OIL that dries in 3 days.. is quite an impor­tant result. It elim­i­nates uses of driers.

    **** yel­low­ing,

    Yel­low­ing is com­mon to all oils, and lin­seed has the most. Cur­rently I am test­ing the ‘WASHING’ of lin­seed oil by var­i­ous means. Even the 17th cen­tury Flem­ish mas­ter, Rubens, who was born into the great­est of oil paint­ing stu­dio tra­di­tions ( that of the Van Eycks) com­plained of his oil paint­ings yellowing..IF STORED IN THE DARK… but he gave the rem­edy to re-blanche . The con­clu­sion is that even WASHED lin­seed oil will yel­low under cer­tain circumstances.

    *****ease of grinding,

    The com­par­i­sion of grind­ing of either poly­mer­ized oils ( refined or unre­fined) or unpoly­mer­ized oils ( refined or unre­fined) is the same, and cer­tainly not of any impor­tance. Work is work, but this is NOT WORK.

    ****rhe­ol­ogy,

    Read Van De Weter­ings com­ments about Rhe­ol­ogy of Rembrandt’s oil paint, in his book..REMBRANDT: THe painter at work. IT GIVES THE VERY BEST argu­ment for use of EGG GLAIR Emul­sions, as described in my book. SO , if you have not yet done the tests of com­bin­ing my ‘cal­cite sun oil’ in con­junc­tion with the emul­sions, , your words cant sup­port an opinion.

    ****and so on,

    David.. excuse me, you could take the time to detail your concerns.

    ******I have not noticed the kinds of strik­ing dif­fer­ences you allude to.

    Your own admis­sion that you have not yet tested nor worked on the infor­ma­tion in my book is suf­fi­cient to wait until you do.

    ******Nor have I noticed that Old Hol­land oil paints (which are ground in cold pressed lin­seed) are vastly dif­fer­ent from other high qual­ity brands of paint that are ground in refined lin­seed oil.

    OF course they are not any bet­ter. The major man­u­fac­tur­ers that pro­duce the high­est qual­ity oil paints… are inter­ested in the integrity of their prod­uct, and con­tin­ued ser­vice to artists… and con­tin­ued sales.

    But I am not in the busi­ness of man­u­fac­tur­ing nor sell­ing oil paints. I am an artist that chooses to pur­chase a cer­tain brand for the rea­sons I believe serve me best. Yet, hand grind­ing oil paint is a true won­der. Only those with blind­ers on will not even try it. I resisted for many years of my life, now that I do hand grind, its done for only the uder­paint­ing stage, where my choice of oil allows me to use the nat­u­rally fastest dry­ing lin­seed oil, and.. becaue I can elim­i­nate that very slow dry­ing alkali refined UNPOLYMERIZED lin­seed oil that is used in the for­mu­la­tion of todays tube oil paints. .. ( for shelf life).

    *******Care to com­ment on how you draw your con­clu­sions about lin­seed oil pro­cess­ing methods?

    # A sim­ple test is this. Sun thicken some UNREFINED cold pressed lin­seed oil for 30 days in sum­mer , in a pure white porce­lain glass con­tainer. Once the oil is thick and vis­cous ( poly­mer­ized) make some oil paint by hand grind­ing some dry pow­dered pigment.

    NEXT, make some with todays stand oil the same way NEXT, make some with unpoly­mer­ized alkali refined lin­seed oil the same way.
    THE RESULTS will con­vince you of one of the main argu­ments my book .. the fast dry­ing with­out use of sol­vents, resins, dri­ers….
    BUT you will also need to use the sim­ple emul­sions to com­plete the testing.

    sin­cerely, louis happy to respond.

  19. David says

    Louis,

    I had not real­ized you were refer­ring only to the suit­abil­ity of cold-pressed vs. refined oil for the pur­pose of sun-thickening. That had not pre­vi­ously been clear to me. I apol­o­gize for the error.

  20. Louis R. Velasquez says

    David, Thanks. The con­cern of the dif­fer­ence is not ’ suit­abil­ity’ as much as
    the result­ing ’ PROPERTIES’ of the two dis­tinct oils. I wish I had the infor­ma­tion in my book when I began to oil paint. It would have saved me years of tri­als and tribu­la­tions and limitations….back then I had sim­i­lar ques­tions as those expressed in the recent let­ters by your read­ers on ’ glaz­ing’ and other sub­jects. The goal of my post­ings are not to con­front nor to insult the intel­li­gence of any reader, but to edu­cate and share valu­able information.

    You have my book, and sam­ples of the mate­ri­als. I under­stand you have been fal­low, are rais­ing a child, and away on trips. But, since you have not used the knowl­edge given you, you do not know the dif­fer­ent prop­er­ties. But, you are not alone as nei­ther have impor­tant authors such as Lau­rie, Eastlake,Taubes, Van De Weter­ing and oth­ers. My book, to the best of my knowl­edge, is the first to pub­lish the com­par­a­tive test­ing data on UNREFINED lin­seed oil. Hope­fully you will read my book and use the mate­ri­als before com­ment­ing on it. Once you do, I know the results—if done cor­rectly— as I have tes­ti­mo­ni­als from some very pro­fes­sional oil painters who have used it.

    It is this oil that is key to elim­i­nat­ing all the Haz­ardous Sol­vents, Resins, Var­nishes and Dri­ers from oil paint­ing… while guar­an­tee­ing com­plete SAFETY and PERMANENCE…. and allow­ing a full range of tech­ni­cal expres­sion of oil paint for com­plete mas­tery of the medium …while mak­ing oil paint­ing easy. Once learned, it is “as easy as falling off a ladder”.

    As impor­tant this oil, it does not func­tion alone…it can­not func­tion alone….it needs to be used in con­junc­tion with either of the two emul­sions… each of which has dis­tinct prop­er­ties and sev­eral impor­tant functions.

    The mas­tery of oil paint­ing ..if one is con­cerned with PERMANENCE… requires stu­dious, ded­i­cated and con­cen­trated appli­ca­tion and atten­tion to details, and much time. ” Cal­cite Sun Oil” and its emul­sions are pos­si­bly not for TTFN, or those with ADHD, or those with ‘ants in me pants’.. this per­son might do bet­ter study­ing the meth­ods of Jack­son Pol­lock and other ‘action painters’.. dont get me wrong, I LOVE Jackson’s work..he is one of my favs.

    sin­cerely= louis

  21. james says

    I will per­haps buy your book, pos­si­bly. I am always open to being taught, guided when the light is not clear to me. Though I must, as time per­mits the busy sched­ule (lotsa dia­pers and dance classes to run to), see more than the word of the cre­ator on the sub­ject. Where, other than in your book, may I see and read the tes­ti­mo­ni­als of these other painters? I mean this in not an affronting man­ner, but in seek­ing the truth on a sub­ject I would like to read, to know. On any given sub­ject, any, the truth is more faceted than the finest cut dia­mond, and some­times find­ing it is like bal­anc­ing that same dia­mond on a blade of grass.

    Clearly, the time you have put into your research is mon­u­men­tal, very respectable, but as if you were to attempt to sell this as a busi­ness plan, more, much more is required to con­vince the pos­si­ble future investors. Your site and all you have writ­ten here is filled with valu­able, though oft repeated info. Fur­ther it I would say. More than your own word is needed to con­vince the masses, with these posts I under­stand that is what you are try­ing. I seek noth­ing to be given or any­thing for free, as I would make a poor test­ing sci­en­tist on the medium, I trust oth­ers opin­ions on the mat­ter. I read and lis­ten and seek, then judg­ing the words of oth­ers, I decide. I might lack much in couth, but I do paint with the idea of per­ma­nence in mind, and studiously…

    All this in a nut­shell, you might be bet­ter at learn­ing how to sell your prod­uct bet­ter. The info pro­vided is not enough to con­vince a per­son to write you a check. Pro­vide bal­anced, unbi­ased, tes­ti­mo­ni­als of your method. Pro­vide links to your claims on your site. All this is needed to be believed, to be understood.

    Vaya con Dios, adiós, till the next,

    james

  22. Louis R. Velasquez says

    DAVID, JAMES, Thanks again. It is through exchanges of infor­ma­tion that we all learn and grow. I am indebted to every per­son who ever wrote a book on oil paint­ing, from ancient man­u­scripts to the present. What is that old saying?”You can learn even from a monkey…how NOT to be a mon­key”. James, your let­ter dis­closes your hon­esty and intel­li­gence. I cut and paste por­tions to respond

    ***I will per­haps buy your book, pos­si­bly. I am always open to being taught, guided when the light is not clear to me.

    I hope you do.. at the moment, its not my main inter­est to make money, as much as it is to begin a grass roots level of cre­at­ing inter­est, inquiry and demand. My man­u­script grew from the dis­cov­ery process of exper­i­ment­ing with the oils, cal­cium car­bon­ate, emul­sions and mix­tures … the infor­ma­tion came together in this effort.

    ****Where, other than in your book, may I see and read the tes­ti­mo­ni­als of these other painters?

    I think I can safely give out some web­sites to you. Artists pub­lish web­sites to increase atten­tion to their work. Write to them. I can­not say they will respond, as it is their deci­sion, and they are busy pro­fes­sion­als. These three artists are very expe­ri­enced, hav­ing painted at high lev­els for years and years. Since my book is new, their work that you will see was painted PRIOR to their pur­chase of my book, and PRIOR to use of my mate­ri­als or infor­ma­tion in my book. But the facts are the facts. I have received their emails telling me of their thoughts and I am deeply grat­i­fied by their com­ments. Its this sim­ple: This method is SAFE, PERMANENT.. and like you have said..I am repeat­ing myself. Best to go see my web­site and strdy what it has to offer..

    **** Clearly, the time you have put into your research is mon­u­men­tal, very respectable,

    Thank you..I know when you work with the knowl­edge and mate­ri­als, your com­ments will sur­prize even yourself.

    *****but as if you were to attempt to sell this as a busi­ness plan, more, much more is required to con­vince the pos­si­ble future investors

    Amen..thanks for the inter­net. It gives visual artists such free­dom now to com­mu­ni­cate images, knowl­edge. I do have a busi­ness plan. I have an iden­ti­fied mar­ket. I received my patent ( its # 7141109) just last November/ 2006. Things take time.

    As I just said, your intel­li­gence and sin­cer­ity and ded­i­ca­tion is evi­dent in the words you write… I have not taken any­thing you have said as..’ uncouth’. SAFETY and PERMANENCE are the two most impor­tant con­sid­er­a­tions for me at this time in my life…referring to oil paint­ing. I know David has said his phi­los­o­phy is that, ” ( para­phrased) : be respon­si­ble, wash your hands, dont ingest any of these some­times toxic items”. This is all good and well..but I have a friend who is one of the most respon­si­ble parents..yet, acci­dents happen..one day he found his 2 year old son with the tube paint all over him­self and the car­pet. What if it had been lead white? Would you take your infant child into the art studio..exposing the child to the haz­ardous vapors of sol­vents?? Many expe­ri­enced pro­fes­sion­als have become deathly sick or have doc­tors orders not to use oil paint­ing materials…because of the sol­vents involved.

    NOW, they can paint safely…….

    ****** The info pro­vided is not enough to con­vince a per­son to write you a check. Pro­vide bal­anced, unbi­ased, tes­ti­mo­ni­als of your method. Pro­vide links to your claims on your site. All this is needed to be believed, to be under­stood. Vaya con Dios, adiós, till the next,=james

    See the web­sites and write to these gifted artists. I have no idea what they will say, but I am con­vinced they will con­vince you to buy the book.

    http://​www​.davidterry​.com http://​www​.rics​-art​.com
    http://​www​.philboatwright​.com
    oth­ers are in devel­op­ment…….
    =sin­cerely, louis

  23. Louis R. Velasquez says

    James, David, I know David has the right to edit post­ings. I included three web­sites for you to review, but they were excluded from my post. . If you wish, write to my email, ill prp­vide them again=louis

  24. David says

    Louis,

    I did not remove the web sites man­u­ally; the com­ments sys­tem removed them auto­mat­i­cally. (It’s amaz­ing how many com­ment spam mes­sages I get here every month; remov­ing URLs is often nec­es­sary.) Here they are:

    http://​www​.davidterry​.com http://​www​.rics​-art​.com
    http://​www​.philboatwright​.com

    I had to do some edit­ing to get the sys­tem to accept them.

  25. Louis R. Velasquez says

    Thanks dAvid, Ill be gone on two trips start­ing fri­day 5/11. your blog is inter­est­ing to read, but ill have no email access until i return on 5/22…Ive enjoyed the com­mu­ni­ca­tion.
    thanks again=louis

  26. tombobiche says

    Well Im still try­ing to fig­ure out how best to emul­sify the egg white. Its been said that Van­Eyck didn’t invent oil paint­ing him­self but put it to good use, and Cen­nino advises to pick as few mas­ters as pos­si­ble to emu­late so as to not paint like one or the other. I know Delacroix liked Tit­ian and Rubens and his tech­nique was pretty scram­bled by com­par­i­son, and I would last choose Tit­ian because thats set­ting the bar pretty high with all his mul­ti­ple dry­ings, but he does like to grisalle like Shep­pard and then thumb the paint onto the weave and so forth and even Goya accord­ing to Doerner sim­ply uses var­nish col­ors over a raw umber tone which isn’t true either, and Goya’s tech­nique and palette are also need­lessly com­plex to try and emu­late; Tit­ian gets where he wants to be in an unknow­able intu­itive way, and even Reynolds who never taught any­one any­thing would buy his paint­ings just to scrape through them to the under­paint­ing try­ing to fig­ure it all out while the wax was crum­bling from the gesso on the car­riage ride to his patrons. But chem­istry is a way and inven­tion and I think about the tech­nique that gets you there so much the user friendly and idiot proof the bet­ter, even Van­Gogh was very metic­u­lous. I have about ten tech­niques I use rang­ing from the hatch­lines that would give patience to a saint to the broad treat­ment of Hals. So I guess to exper­i­ment and inno­vate is part of the aes­thetic process where we should really be draw­ing and design­ing had the years not claimed so many alchem­i­cal foibles.

    Some­thing inter­est­ing, Pacheco had said of El Greco, “no one ever in the his­tory of art had worked so hard for so poor results”, and I sup­pose he was refer­ring to El Greco’s clay dolls, and El Greco said about Michelan­gelo that “he didn’t know how to paint” so I guess there was no love lost there.

    http://​i180​.pho​to​bucket​.com/​a​l​b​u​m​s​/​x​104​/​b​e​e​h​i​v​e​X​/​v​i​e​w​1​.​jpg

  27. tombobiche says

    I guess my point about Tit­ian beyond the notion that he’s too com­plex to emu­late is that he wound up paint­ing later in his career very dif­fer­ent from where he started paint­ing in the north­ern man­ner; so its hard to find the smok­ing gun in one gri­saille or the other in one defin­ing state­ment because accord­ing to the needs of the sit­u­a­tion and his fancy he var­ied his tech­nique, and could be in areas of the paint­ing. He does every­thing that could be accom­plished in the medium and was the epit­omy of the Venet­ian styles that car­ried over into the Baroque.

  28. Louis R. Velasquez says

    HI DAVID AND TOMBOBICHE. ITS INTERESTING TO SEE THAT TOMBOBICHE’S POST DATED NOV.2008, ID ALMOSTYEAR ANDHALF LATER, FROM THE PREVIOUS POST. HOW TIME FLIES WHEN ONE PAINTS.

    WITH PERMISSION, ILL WRITE IN CAPS.CUT AND PASTED TOMBOBICHE’S LETTER, WHICH IS WRITTEN IN LOWER CASE.

    Well Im still try­ing to fig­ure out how best to emul­sify the egg white. THE EMULSION MUST FIRSTMADE ACCORDING TOFORMULA. THEN, THE APPLICATION METHOD MUST BE KNOWN TO USE IT EFFECTIVELY.GUESSCOULD COPY AND PASTE ALL 130 PAGES OF MY BOOK HERE, TO GIVE ALL THE INFORMATION IT HAS, BUTDO NOT THINK THAT IS CALLED FOR.
    WHY NOT HAVE YOUR LOCAL LIBRARY ORDER THE BOOK AND THEN IT WILL BE AVAILBLE FRRE TO THEIR READERS. ITS NOW BEEN PUBLISHED BY WORDCLAY, AND LIBRARYS CAN GET IT. ITS ON AMAZON AND OTHER ONLINE STORES TOO..SORRY IFSOUND LIKE IM TRYING TO SELL IT…IM JUST TRYING TO TELL YOU HOW TO GET IT SO YOU CAN GET THE KNOWLEDGE. AND…IM SORRY YOU ARE WASTING SO MUCH TIME TRYING TO REINVENT THE WHEEL…BY TESTING AND EXPERIMENTING WITH THE TWO EMULSIONS IVE DESCRIBED.. ITS JUST SAD, WHEN THE METHOD IS INBOOK.

    YES HE DID. ITS AN ANCIENT MEDIUM. VAN EYCK WAS TRAINED AS AN EGG TEMPERA PAINTER- THATS THE REASONBELIEVE HE LEARNED HOW TO MAKE THE EMULSIONS.. BUT AGAIN..THE APPLICATION METHOD IS CERTAINLY THE SECOND HALF OF THAT LOST SECRET’. IF ITS NOT USED CORRECTLY, THE EMULSION FORMULA FAILS.HAD AN EPIPHANY ONE DAY, AFTERHAD FORMULATED THE TWO SIMPLE EMULSIONS, AND DEVELOPED THEIR APPLICATION METHOD…TO HAVE READ THAT THOUGH VASARI WROTE ABOUT THE LOST VAN EYCK SECRET…AND HE NEVER FOUND IT… WROTE THAT HE HAD TRIEDEMULSIONS…BUT THAT THEY DID NOT WORK’ FOR HIM. THAT REMINDS ME OF YOUR EFFORTS… AND SO IT BECAME CLEAR THAT HAVING THE EMULSION, YET NOT KNOWING HOW TO USE IT , CAUSED HIM TROUBLES.

    and Cen­nino advises to pick as few mas­ters as pos­si­ble to emu­late so as to not paint like one or the other. I DONT AGREE WITH THAT- NOT IN OUR MODERN INFORMATION AGE

    I know Delacroix liked Tit­ian and Rubens and his tech­nique was pretty scram­bled by com­par­i­son, SO VERY TRUE- EXCELLENT OBSERVATION.

    and I would last choose Tit­ian because thats set­ting the bar pretty high with all his mul­ti­ple dry­ings, but he does like to grisalle like Shep­pard and then thumb the paint onto the weave and so forth TITIAN WAS THE TEACHER OF REMBRANDT, RUBENS, VELAZQUEZ ANDHOST OF BAROQUE PAINTERS. TITIAN WAS THE STANDARD. AND TITIAN PAINTED WITH SIMPLE MEANS.LIKE TO REFER TO THE OILDESCRIBE TODAY ASTHE REBIRTH OF THE OLD MASTERS SUPERIOR OIL’, AS IT IS THE FOUNDATION OF THE MEDIUM, AND SINCE THAT YEAR ANDHALF PASSED, IVE DEDICATED THAT TIME TO SOLVING THE CLEANSING OF THE UNREFINED OIL. IVE FINALLY FOUND EXCELLENT WAYS TO DO IT…AGAIN… BASED ON OLD METHODS, MADE MODERN.DONT RECOMMEND YOU WASTE YOUR TIME REINVENTING MY PROGESS..ITS JUST NOT NEEDED. MY WEBSITE HAS THE SIMPLEST METHOD THERE WITH FULL INSTRUCTIONS. THE BOOK HAS SEVERAL OTHERS, INCLUDING PACHECOS 17TH CENTURY METHOD- FRANCISCO PACHECO WAS VELAZQUEZ TEACHER. IM CONFIDENT VELAZQUEZ USED PACHECOS METHOD.

    DOERNER WASTIRELESS WORKER- BUT LACKED MODERN SCIENCE- HE WAS WRONG ON MANY ACCOUNTS. AND HEGUESSEDREMBRANDT USED RESINS…THE CURRENT STUDIES SHOW NO RESIN IN REMBRANDTS WORK.

    ACTUALLYDISAGREE.

    Tit­ian gets where he wants to be in an unknow­able intu­itive way, GREAT OBSERVATION. TITIAN PAINTED INSIMPLE METHOD THAT ALLOWED HIM MAXIMUM FREEDOM…AS SIMPLICITY WILL DO.

    and even Reynolds who never taught any­one any­thing would buy his paint­ings just to scrape through them to the under­paint­ing try­ing to fig­ure it all out while the wax was crum­bling from the gesso on the car­riage ride to his patrons. REYNOLDS WASTERIBLE CRAFTSMAN- LACKED THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE OLD MASTERS. HIS WORK IS PROOF OF NOT USING WAX IN YOUR PAINT, YET, BECAUSE DOERNER AND MAROGER AND OTHERS ADVISE ITS USE..LOTS OF NAIVE PEOPLE BELIEVE WHAT THEY READ AND GO ON TRYING THINGS OUT. WE HUMANS DO NOT LIVE LONG ENOUGH TO SEE THE DECOMPOSITION OF OUR PAINTINGS IF MADE WITH POOR MATERIALS.
    AND APPLICATION CHOICES

    But chem­istry is a way and inven­tion and I think about the tech­nique that gets you there so much the user friendly and idiot proof the bet­ter, even Van­Gogh was very metic­u­lous. VAN GOGH WASGREAT CRAFSTSMAN, AND HIS STYLE REQUIRED HIM TO TRY UNORTHODOX METHODS. BUT IN CREATIVE WORK, ONE MUST THINK OUTSIDE THE BOX. ONE REMBRANDT SMALL PAINTING ISJUMBLE OF PASTED AND CUT PARTS, ALL SEEMED TOGETHER….THINK HE WOULD HAVE LOVED PHOTOSHOP.

    I have about ten tech­niques I use rang­ing from the hatch­lines that would give patience to a saint to the broad treat­ment of Hals. So I guess to exper­i­ment and inno­vate is part of the aes­thetic process where we should really be draw­ing and design­ing had the years not claimed so many alchem­i­cal foibles. YES YES YES…. EXCELLENT COMMENT…AND VERY POETIC TOO.

    NO, ITS NOTCOMMENT ON HIS USE OF CLAY DOLLS- A METHOD EL GRECO LEARNED FROM THE VENETIANS….. ACTUALLY, PACHECO WENT TO SEE EL GRECO PAINT. AND SAW THAT EL GRECO WAS ACTUALLY PUTTINGGREAT DEAL OF PATIENT WORK INTO FINISHING’ A PART ON HIS PAINTING…THE WORD FINISHING’ MEANS BLENDING AND DETAILING AND ALL THAT ONE DOES… BUT THEN EL GRECO, AFTER HE HAD FINISHED’ THE PAINTING TOPERFECTION’…THEN GOTFULL BRUSH AND SLASHED AT IT TO CREATE HIS TRADEMARK LOOSE IMPRESSIONISTIC TOUCHES.

    AND HE ALSO SAID HE WOULD REPAINT THE SISTINE CHAPEL..’ AND DO IT RIGHT’.

    YOU KNOW..WHEN WE TURN 40..OUR EYES GIVE OUT SLOWLY.
    IM SURE REMBRANDT AND TITIAN SUFFERED FROM THE SAME…CAUSING THEIR WORK TO BECOME MORE BROAD. AND BESIDES ONE GETS VERY TIRED OF REPETITION. EVER HEAR BOB DYLAN SING BLOWING IN THE WIND’ TODAY? ..IT DOES NOT SOUND LIKEHIS 1962 VERSION WE ALL KNOW.

    so its hard to find the smok­ing gun in one gri­saille or the other in one defin­ing state­ment because accord­ing to the needs of the sit­u­a­tion and his fancy he var­ied his tech­nique, and could be in areas of the paint­ing. He does every­thing that could be accom­plished in the medium and was the epit­omy of the Venet­ian styles that car­ried over into the Baroque. SO VERY TRUE. HE WAS THE GOD’ OF PAINTING TO ALL THAT FOLLOWED HIM.

    SINCERELY=LOUIS

  29. tombobiche says

    Thats totally cool. When I was in col­lege they taught me to paint like Matisse and Franz Kline, but I like the real­ist style and I guess my teach­ers thought I was typ­i­cal; and I still like to paint things I imag­ine and cut and paste bet­ter than extrap­o­lat­ing from real­ity on the go. So Ill cer­tainly try the ILL and I’m curi­ous about the dual com­pos­ite Var­nish of Rem­brandt and want to test the lean and thick on it so thankyou like Tit­ian had set “thirty or forty” but he must have been think­ing about the whole thing lol “hasta cua­tro veces y tiempo para gas­tar!” ok well cheers tombobiche

    http://​i180​.pho​to​bucket​.com/​a​l​b​u​m​s​/​x​104​/​b​e​e​h​i​v​e​X​/​H​a​r​r​y​_​D​e​a​n​_​S​t​a​n​t​o​n​.​jpg

  30. tombobiche says

    Oh I used to know the chemist/sculptor who made all the stat­ues of the fas­cist dic­ta­tor Rojas Pinilla; he was a French­man and a ter­ri­ble alco­holic and was forced even­tu­ally to replace the heads on all the stat­ues but he had a good line of art prod­ucts too in clays and paints.



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